Powers was merely to increase the pressure on the Government of Poland
and to endeavour to persuade it to accede to Moscow's demands and . . .
capitulate. Soviet propaganda now openly declared that the Kremlin
had no further wish to deal with " the Fascist clique in London which
terms itself the Polish Government.55 But it seemed that things were not
to proceed quite so smoothly for the Soviets as outward appearances would
have led one to believe. Under British pressure, the Polish Premier,,
Mikoiajczyk; on July 23, 1944, once more publicly advertised his desire to
achieve an agreement with the Soviets. Although no normal diploma tic
relations existed between the two countries^ he flew to Cairo on the next
day, declaring his willingness to continue his journey as far as Moscow.
While still en route the Kremlin announced its full recognition of the
Chelm Committee of National Liberation, and on the basis of the afore-
mentioned agreement with it, exchanged c diplomatic representatives *
forthwith. Thus, when the Polish Prime Minister finally arrived in
Moscow, he found a representative rivalc Polish Government' already
functioning in that country.
The choice of a diplomatic agent from thisú Committee * was a minor
detail, but the selection of Nicholas Bulganin as the representative to be
sent to Chelm was a proof of the importance which Moscow attached to
this post, since he was destined to be the Gauleiter of Russian-occupied
Poland. Nicholas Bulganin was a Chairman of the Moscow Soviet and a
member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President
of the State Bank of the U.S.S.R. The importance of this man in the
Party and in Soviet bureaucracy could be judged by the fact that, when
in 1942^ certain prominent personages in the Party received military ranks.,
he was nominatedc Colonel General* one rank lower than Stalin himself.
After the diplomatic relations between Russia and Poland had been
broken off., the interests of the Polish Embassy in Moscow were left in
in the care of the Australian Government. The Australian Legation at
this junction received a notification from the Commissariat of Foreign
Affairs that, as representatives had now been exchanged between the
U.S.S.R. and the ' Polish Committee/ the Soviet Government no longer
considered it necessary for the Australian Government to undertake the
protection of the Polish Legation since responsible persons from the
c Polish Committee' would now take over that duty.
" This3 in my opinion, is a hopeful moment for Poland," considered
Churchill in the House of Commons on August 2, " for whose rights and
independence we entered the war against Germany. We therefore did our
best, my right hon. friend (the Foreign Secretary) and I and others^ late
into the night, to promote the visit of M. Mikolajczyk and members of his
Cabinet to Moscow, where Marshal Stalin was willing to receive them.
The President of the United States was also favourable. How could it be
otherwise in these matters, considering his deep interest in the Polish
question ? The Russian armies now stand before the gates of Warsaw,
They bring the liberation of Poland in their hands. They offer freedom,